چکیده: ماده ۲۱۲ قانون مدنی، معامله اشخاص غیربالغ، غیرعاقل و غیررشید را به واسطه عدم اهلیت استیفاء، «باطل» دانسته و ماده بعد، معامله محجوران را نیز «غیرنافذ» دانسته است، در حالی که ماده ۱۲۱۲ قانون مدنی، تصرفات صغیر را «باطل» و به طور استثناء تملکات بلاعوض صغیرِ ممیز را «صحیح» دانسته است. همچنین، ماده ۱۲۱۳ قانون مدنی، تصرفات حقوقی مجنون دائمی را مطلقاً «باطل» و اعمال حقوقی مجنون ادواری را در حال افاقه، «صحیح» دانسته است. ماده ۱۲۱۴ قانون مدنی، تصرفات غیررشید را غیرنافذ ولی تملکات بلاعوض وی را «صحیح» دانسته است، در حالی که از یک جهت، معامله چنین اشخاصی را در ماده ۲۱۲ قانون مدنی، به نحو مطلق «باطل» اعلام کرده بود و از جهت دیگر، در ماده ۲۱۳ قانون مدنی، «غیرنافذ» می دانست. نوشتار حاضر، با رویکرد توصیفی- تحلیلی و به صورت گزیده، با تحلیل مبانی فقهی و حقوقی و اقوال فقهای امامیه و حقوقدانان ایران در زمینه حجر، سعی در رفع تعارض ظاهری موجود دارد؛ بدین گونه که قانونگذار در مواد ۲۱۲ قانون مدنی (جلد اول)، احکام محجوران مذکور را «باطل» اعلام نموده است و در جلد دوم، از ماده ۱۲۰۷ قانون مدنی به بعد، به بیان احکام راجع به اشخاص مذکور در ماده ۲۱۲ پرداخته است و ماده ۲۱۳ قانون مدنی ناظر به اشخاصی است که به حکم «قانون» یا «دادگاه» از تمام یا برخی از تصرفات مالی خود ممنوع شدهاند.
واژگان کلیدی:حجر، اهلیت استیفاء، محجور، اعمال حقوقی، تصرفات مالی.
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